Although the Agreements of the Treaty of Tordesillas concluded the Atlantic divergences, they also fuelled other difficulties. In the early 1510s, the Portuguese foot moved towards the Moluccas Archipelago, which was a nail-producing region. The Spanish questioned their right to settle there, because the Treaty of Tordesillas had divided the earth into two hemispheres and the archipelago was in its part. In the years that followed, there were skirmishes against the Portuguese and The Spaniards because of the possession of the Moluccas, for it was impossible to determine the antimeroidian corresponding to that of Tordesillas. The dispute over the Moluccas was finally resolved by the Treaty of Zaragoza (22 April 1529), signed by John III of Portugal and Charles V. It provided for the definition of a demarcation line crossing 297.5 leagues east of the Moluccas, recognized as Portuguese. In the end, the Portuguese hemisphere was about 187 degrees, the Spanish 173 degrees, a division almost equal in two half-spheres. The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas [tɾɐˈtaðu tuɾðeˈziʎɐʃ];… Note 1] Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas [tɾaˈtaðo toɾðeˈsiʎas]), signed on 7 June 1494 in Tordesillas, Spain and authenticated in Setabal (Portugal), shared the newly discovered countries outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire (Castile Crown) along a 370 Meridian League west of the Cape Verde Islands, off the west coast of Africa. This demarcation line was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already in Portuguese) and the islands that Christopher Columbus entered on his first voyage (claimed for Castilla and Lein) in the treaty called Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola).
The monopoly of discovery, navigation and trade, created in favour of the Iberian powers, was challenged by France, England and then the Dutch Republic. They considered that the papal decisions were not binding and that the treaty was a bilateral obligation that applied only to the signatories. Francis I insulted the Iberian monopoly on unknown countries and reportedly asked “to see in Adam`s will and will the clause that prevents me from sharing the world.” In the 1520s he financed expeditions under the command of Giovanni da Verrazzano, who also wanted to find a passage in Asia. During the 16th century, the Iberians all recalled the prohibition of banning foreigners from sailing in their respective fields. At the same time, however, the Spaniards settled in the Philippines, which travelled to Portuguese territory in accordance with the provisions of the Zaragoza Treaty. The rivalry between states over discoveries, navigation and trade in America and Asia has led to a controversy between the maquisards for the exclusivity of maritime domains, mare Clausum, and those for the freedom of the seas, mare liberum.