The situation in other areas is less clear: discussions are under way on what the non-market-based approach actually implies and how to distinguish it from existing forms of cooperation. Progress has been made in this regard, for example in identifying activities that could benefit from this approach, including the elimination of fossil fuel subsidies.  Although the text of the Paris Agreement is not under discussion, Article 6 is only two pages long and does not describe how these systems work and the rules that will ensure that they lead to real emission reductions. To finalize the rules, negotiators must navigate the text through a thicket of impenetrable jargon, a series of technical accounting challenges and bear traps of “constructive ambiguity” that often hide incompatible views on how Article 6 should work and why it was created. The current text of the negotiations contains several “basic tests” to ensure additionality, including a square option that could set the bar beyond what the host country would need to deliver on its climate promise (NDC). The text of the option states that, given the ongoing discussion on how best to reach OMGE, Dufrasne states that “unfortunately” automatic termination is not currently supported by many countries, and he says “there are a lot of misunderstandings about what the bases are going to do”. The resolution of Article 6 is the most important item on Cop25`s agenda. But failure is a perception traditionally avoided by the UN, police hosts, national governments and certain components of civil society. If things migrate until 2020, you expect a Madrid fudge to be born. This could be done in the form of a “partial closure,” in which some differences of opinion will be declared consensual with a closer discussion for 2020. Article 6.2 allows countries to conclude bilateral and voluntary agreements on trade in carbon units. This highlights a reason for disagreement with Article 6.4, namely that cdM hosts did not have specific Kyoto emission reduction targets, meaning that economies cannot be “counted twice” towards more than one target. They expect future demand for offset credits to be relatively stable, regardless of price, and that systems like Corsia will even have to use them at higher prices.
Update 23.12.2019: The COP25 climate summit in Madrid in December 2019 did not allow negotiators to agree on the Rules of Article 6, despite considerable progress. To understand what happened at COP25 and how the Article 6 negotiations took place, see the detailed summary of the discussions. One of the keys to this strengthened ambition lies in the implementation of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. At COP24 in Katowice, Poland, last December, the participating countries reached an agreement on the implementation of the Paris Agreement – the so-called Paris regulation – but failed to agree on the implementation of Article 6.